Diabetes is a disease that has spread a lot in recent years. The main reasons, besides the genetic factor, are a sedentary lifestyle and a poor diet. In this article we will talk about the different types of diabetes, that is, type 1, 2 and gestational diabetes.
Did you know, for example, that more than 3 million Italians have diabetes? A figure that has doubled in the last thirty years.
What is diabetes?
In a very simple way, we can say that diabetes is a disease characterized by the presence of a high percentage of glucose in the blood.
This happens because of the pancreas, the organ responsible for producing insulin, does not work properly.
As a result, the insulin produced by the pancreas has deficiencies and fails to regulate blood glucose levels. This function must be performed artificially by taking pills or using injections.
Diabetes can appear at different times in life and with different intensities. Based on this, the mattia is classified into the types we are going to list for you.
Type 1 diabetes
In type 1 diabetes, also called juvenile (or infantile), the pancreas does not produce insulin. People who suffer from this disease should have daily insulin injections. Although it can occur at any age, it usually appears during the first years of life or during adolescence.
This type of diabetes is easier to diagnose because the analysis does not show the presence of insulin in the body. In many cases, the detection is carried out in the first months of life. In general, the choice is made to use an insulin pump (or an insulin pump) which allows easier administration of the precise doses to be taken.
Thanks to advances in medicine and the greater variety of foods available on the market, the lives of people with diabetes are practically the same as those of people who do not suffer from this disease.
Type 2 diabetes
Unlike type 1, the pancreas produces insulin. However, production is insufficient or does not have the desired effects. This type of diabetes has a strong genetic factor and even in this case medical treatments are required.
Lifestyle, along with genetics, plays a very important role in the onset of this disease. It has been recorded that diabetes appears frequently in those who lead a sedentary lifestyle, who are overweight or are obese.
80% of people suffering from type 2 diabetes are overweight. Medical treatment is done with pills or with insulin injections, depending on the severity of diabetes or drug resistance.
Until a few years ago this type of diabetes was known as “adult diabetes”, but this name was set aside. This is due to the fact that, although it has a higher incidence among people over 40, more and more young people suffer from this disease.
Gestational diabetes usually appears during the second half of pregnancy. Don’t be too alarmed, it’s a very common problem among pregnant women. Depending on the intensity it will be treated in one way or another.
The doctor will carry out constant monitoring to ensure that diabetes does not present a risk to the child or the mother. In most cases, it is sufficient to reduce the consumption of sugars with meals and replace them with sweeteners.
It will, therefore, be necessary to pay attention to and keep in check the typical cravings that may appear during pregnancy.
Usually, gestational diabetes is detected between the twelfth and twenty-fourth week of pregnancy through the O’Sullivan test. It is important to perform this test especially for those women who have had this problem in previous pregnancies.